Nd astaxanthin in C. zofingiensis and guarantees the feasibility of utilizing this alga for integrated production in the two compounds. In this context, C. zofingiensis has the possible to serve as a top algal producer of lipids for biodiesel and an option promising source of all-natural astaxanthin.Extraction of TAG and astaxanthinIt is believed that integrated production of TAG with high-value items from algae has the prospective toConsidering that each TAG and astaxanthin are stored in LDs of C. zofingiensis [40], co-extraction of these two compounds in the alga is probable. Nevertheless, C. zofingiensis possesses rigid cell wall especially below tension situations [8] and thus cell Macrolide Storage & Stability disruption is required to facilitate extraction of TAG and astaxanthin from the alga and downstream processes. Numerous mechanic and non-mechanic disruption solutions have already been created and applied to rupture cell walls of different microalgae; the former include things like bead beating [125], grinding [126], ultrasonication [127], high-pressure homogenization [128] and expeller pressing [129], along with the latter include repeated freeze haw [130], osmotic shock [131], microwave radiation [132] and enzymatic digestion [133]. These methods should also operate for cell wall disruption of C. zofingiensis, although modifications can be required because of variations in cell wall composition and rigidity between C. zofingiensis as well as other algae [134]. Organic solvents is usually applied to ruptured algal cells for easy extraction of lipids and pigments. The frequently employed organic technique for C. zofingiensis is a mixture of chloroform and methanol (two:1, v/v), which has been demonstrated to extract each TAG and astaxanthin efficiently [13, 14, 17]. Nonetheless, this polar organic mixture extracts not merely TAG and astaxanthin but also polar lipids. Low-polarity organic solvents, for instance hexane/isopropanol, have been applied for hugely selective extraction of TAG from microalgae [135, 136]. This must operate for C. zofingiensis to selectively extract TAG as well as astaxanthin. As the use of organic solventsZhang et al. Biotechnol Biofuels(2021) 14:Page 9 ofbrings environmental and safety difficulties, alternative green solvents, for example supercritical fluids (e.g., CO2) and ionic liquids, have Bcr-Abl Source emerged as the extraction media for lipids from microalgal biomass [13740]. Regardless of whether these approaches is usually applied to C. zofingiensis for efficient TAG and astaxanthin extraction demands to be experimentally evaluated.Lipid metabolism in C. zofingiensis Despite the fact that the past decade has witnessed substantial progress in lipid production by C. zofingiensis, the content material and yield have to be enhanced for much more viable biodiesel utilizes, which depend on genetic modifications with the alga guided by deep understanding of lipid metabolism. The availability of C. zofingiensis genome sequence [33] and expertise from C. reinhardtii, a close relative to C. zofingiensis with detailed study on acyl-lipid metabolism [14143], accelerate research and understanding on lipogenesis for TAG biosynthesis in C. zofingiensis.Profiles of fatty acids and glycerolipid classesThe fatty acid profile of C. zofingiensis has been determined and reported by several studies in the past decade [13, 17, 18, 282, 37, 62, 79]. Generally, the fatty acids are composed of C16:0, C16:17, C16:13t, C16:27,ten, C16:37,10,13, C16:34,7,10,13, C18:0, C18:19, C18:29,12, C18:36,9,12, C18:39,12,15, and C18:46,9,12,15 (Fig. four). This differs from the fatty acid composition of C. r.