E published version from the manuscript. Funding: This research was funded by National Institute on Drug Abuse, DA047178. Institutional Review Board Statement: Not applicable. Informed Consent Statement: Not applicable. Conflicts of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.Viruses 2021, 13,12 of
antioxidantsReviewRecent Molecular Mechanisms and Advantageous effects of Phytochemicals and Plant-Based Entire Foods in Reducing LDL-C and Preventing Cardiovascular DiseaseSalman Ul Islam 1, , Muhammad Bilal Ahmed 1, , Haseeb Ahsan 1,2,and Young-Sup Lee 1, School of Life Sciences, BK21 Four KNU Creative BioResearch Group, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea; [email protected] (S.U.I.); [email protected] (M.B.A.); [email protected] (H.A.) Division of Pharmacy, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +82-53-950-6353; Fax: +82-53-943-2762 These authors contributed equally to this work.Citation: Islam, S.U.; Ahmed, M.B.; Ahsan, H.; Lee, Y.-S. Current Molecular Mechanisms and Valuable Effects of Phytochemicals and Plant-Based Entire Foods in Reducing LDL-C and Stopping Cardiovascular Disease. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 784. https://doi.org/10.3390/ antiox10050784 Academic Editors: Irene Dini and Domenico Montesano Received: 25 March 2021 Accepted: 12 Could 2021 Published: 15 MayAbstract: Abnormal lipid metabolism results in the development of hyperlipidemia, a typical cause of Gutathione S-transferase review multiple chronic problems, which includes cardiovascular illness (CVD), obesity, diabetes, and cerebrovascular illness. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) at the moment remains the major target for remedy of hyperlipidemia. Despite the advancement of therapy and prevention of hyperlipidemia, medications utilized to manage hyperlipidemia are restricted to allopathic drugs, which present particular limitations and adverse effects. Rising proof indicates that utilization of phytochemicals and plant-based complete foods is definitely an αvβ8 Purity & Documentation option and promising strategy to prevent hyperlipidemia and CVD. The present critique focuses on phytochemicals and their pharmacological mode of actions for the regulation of LDL-C and prevention of CVD. The significant molecular mechanisms illustrated in detail in this assessment include elevation of reverse cholesterol transport, inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption, acceleration of cholesterol excretion inside the liver, and reduction of cholesterol synthesis. Additionally, the useful effects of plant-based complete foods, such as fresh fruits, vegetables, dried nuts, flax seeds, whole grains, peas, beans, vegan diets, and dietary fibers in LDL-C reduction and cardiovascular health are summarized. This overview concludes that phytochemicals and plant-based entire foods can lessen LDL-C levels and reduced the danger for CVD. Key phrases: plant-based foods; LDL; CVD; lipid oxidation; dietary fiber; cholesterol; hyperlipidemia1. Introduction Cholesterol is circulated in the human body by 5 main types of lipoproteins: highdensity lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), really low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and chylomicrons [1]. The metabolism and plasma levels of cholesterol are mainly regulated by the liver. In the course of the very first step of LDL formation, intrahepatic cholesterol, either by means of gut absorption or de novo synthesis, is repackaged by the liver in addition to phospholipids, triglycerides (TGs), and.